Engineering Officer's Guide

Created/Written by: Tom Magdiarz and Instructor Relay
Updated by: LtJg John O`Ralley
Sources: ST-Encyclopedia, ST TNG + Ds9-Tech Manual, ST Physics, and me
StarDate: * 9510.24 Version 1
               * 9704.24 Version 2.1
          * 9802.00 Version 2.2
          * 9906.24 Version 2.3 by Instructor Trolious and UCIP's proud Corps of   
                                Engineers CoE
          * 0001.03 Version 3.0 by LtJg John O`Ralley and UCIP’s proud Corps of 
                                Engineers CoE


1. Introduction
2. The Engines                            
Warp Drive [matter/antimatter] *
    2.2 EPS Taps *
    2.3 Impulse Drive *
3. Warp/Subspace Fields *

3.1 Time Constraints
    3.2 Static Warp shell
    3.3 Warp Field Effect *
    3.4 Variable Geometry warp nacelles *
4. Warp Factors
    4.1 Subspace Density and gravitational constant
    4.2 Warp Factor formulae
5. Basic Subsystems
    5.1 Transporters *
    5.2 Replicators *
    5.3 Holodecks *
    5.4 Computers *
          5.4.1 Bio-Neural Gel Packs *
6. TransWarp definition
    6.1 Quantum Slipstream
    6.2 Keltrinium
7. Engineering Jobs Per Ship Modes *
8. Other Chief/Assistant Jobs *           
9. Tools *
10. Final Notes

[Sections with * or [Important] next to them are those which will be on the test.  Even though some parts might not be on the test, it’s important that you can read them and comprehend their material as well as the other sections - you never know when the test might change :]


Welcome to the dark, misty cavern that we like to call the Engineering facility, placed right here on the Academy grounds at Starbase 001 for specific course-training on the knowledge required and expected from a Chief and Assistant Engineering Officer on board a Star Fleet vessel.  Do not take this job lightly; it’s a very complex in depth post, which will require care and your full attention.  Even if you aren’t an engineer, this guide will prove both informative and helpful towards your duties as a Starfleet officer. 

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No need to be sweating cats and dogs already, we’ve hardly just begun. To lighten things off, we'll begin with a graphical representation of the whole Warp Drive progress that is the foundation to your job.

Port Nacelle
                     _.-'     `-._
      Warp Coils             .-'  ` || || '  `-.            P=Plasma
    _______________  _      ,'   \\          //  `.           Transfer
/ ||||||||||| || \    /'  \   _,-----._   /     \         
   |_|||||||||||_||_/   / E\\  ,' \ | | / `.  //    \      
      | P  |             _] \   / \  ,---.  / \   // \        Taps
      | P   \__,--------/\ `   | \  /     \  / |/   - |      
P ,-'       _,-'  |- |\-._ | .---, |  -|   == |
||P/_____,---' || |_|= ||   `-',--. \|  -| -  ==|
E=-Warp=o===E=_|- ||     ( O  )||  -| -  --|
      ||P\~~~~~Core._|| | |= ||  _,-.`--' /|  -| -  ==|
      ) P `-.__      `-.  |- |/-'  | `---' |  -|   == |
      | P   /  `--------\/ ,   | /  \     /  \ |\   - |
    __|_P__|_______  _    ]E /  \ /  `---'  \ /   \\ /
| ||||||||||||| || \   \  //  `._/ | | \_.'  \\  /
   \_|||||||||||||_||_/    \   /    `-----'    \   /
                            `.  //           \\  ,'
Warp Coils              `-._   || ||   _,-'
Starbard Nacelle                   `-._____,-'

Warp Coils
,----------------._                ____  
(_|||||||||||||_||_)     __...---~'    `~~~----...__    
X__  .---‘       _===============================     Injector
,----------------._/'      `---..._______...---'
(_|||||||||||||_||_) . .  ,--'
X__ .---'   |     `/
'--------_- - ||| - -/  
‘------------------- >      Deuterium Supply
Port Warp Nacelles  Starboard Warp Nacelles          Matter Reactant
[|||||||||||||||]    [|||||||||||||||||||]             Injector
|                         |                         ||
Plasma Injector         Plasma Injector                   ||
\                         \                        ||
------------------------------ EPS --------Matter/Antimatter
Power taps       Reaction Chamber
|                ||
EPS               ||
power distrib         ||
Antimatter Reactant


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2.1. Warp Drive [matter/antimatter] 
Nearly 340 years ago, shortly after the third World War, a Scientist known as Zefram Cochrane began a project he endeavoured to be the "Warp Drive." Warp Drive was singlely the most important invention ever created for mankind. Shortly after its development, poverty, disease, famine, all of these things ceased to exist. Zefram's test ship was to be known as the Phoenix, whose test flight resulted in the First Contact of an alien race known as the Vulcans. Almost 100 years later, the Federation was established. Now a days, Warp Drive is the primary propulsion of most, Faster-than-Light (FTL) Confederation spacecraft.


     In the simplest of explanations, Matter and Anti-matter are both stored on opposing sides of each other, because of the explosive power they produce when collided. Anti-matter is most unstable, and as such it stored at the bottom with only a deck plate's distance in between for easy dumping.

Antimatter: Matter whose electrical charge properties are the opposite of "normal" matter.

     For example, a "normal" proton has a positive charge, but an antiproton has a negative charge. When a particle of antimatter is brought into contact with an equivalent particle of normal matter, both particles are annihilated, and a considerable amount of energy is released. Another example is the electron. A normal electron has a negative charge, but an anti-electron, called a positron, has a positive charge.
     Positrons have less energy potential and are harder to keep stable in the annihilation process. As such, Protons and Anti-protons are used to power Faster-than-light propulsion. A little history on anti-matter:
     When the universe was first created, it contained 101 protons for every 100 anti-protons - which we believe may have caused the first big bang. Because of this, the majority of matter in the universe is in fact matter, and not anti-matter.
     The Confederation produces anti-matter in large concentrations utilizing quantum reversal devices, to complete the transition from matter to anti-matter, constructed in large Starfleet fueling facilities. Of course, in extreme cases of emergency, antimatter production on starships is possible, but never recommended ;)
     Here, antiprotons and antineutrons are combined to form the nuclei of anti-heavy hydrogen. Warp cores then annihilate this with antiprotons to produce the immense power necessary for a starship's EPS, and propulsion. All of these anti-atoms are extremely difficult to keep stable. Huge electromagnetic fields are utilized to maintain the stability needed to house them. Unfortunately, anti-neutrons are nearly impossible to keep stable due to the fact that magnetic fields only work on objects that have an electric charge. Because of this, these subatomic particles rely upon the charge of the anti-matter nuclei to remain stable.
     Anti-matter nuclei are shafted through magnetic tubes - not actually touching the tubes, magnetic confinement fields prevents such. Magnetic lock failures are therefore serious, you usually see Geordi running in the opposite direction, especially when it's the anti-matter tubes! 
     These nuclei then meet up in the Dilithium matter/anti-matter reaction chamber where they hit the Dilithium crystals. Since crystals are arranged in a "lattice" structure, this crystalline lattice makes it possible for the Dilithium to be the only thing "porous" to anti-matter, minus other cryogenic forms of elements. 
     For the Dilithium to create a controlled annihilation of matter and antimatter, the anti-heavy-hydrogen protons, and the normal protons are all threaded through the atom lattices of the crystals where they meet, and eventually collide. The Dilithium crystals, known more commonly by their scientific formula:

2<5>6 dilithium 2<:>1 diallosilicate 1:9:1 heptoferranide

.. can regulate the antimater density, and thus the matter-antimatter reaction rate, since the lattices of the crystals remain a fixed distance both from atoms of normal matter and one another (just keep metreon radiation far out of reach from it :) When these two matters annihilate they create a type of warp plasma [Plasma is ionized gas, typically hotter than the corona of a star, which is around 2million degrees celsius]. This also creates a spike in gamma radiation about 1 geV(Giga-electron volts), thus the warp ion trail of antiprotons and gamma radiation that we often track cloaked ships with.

[Not as important]

     One must also realize that for the controlled annihilation to become possible, one would have to have a reasonable amount of anti-matter nuclei for every amount of matter nuclei. The mistake that most cadets make at the academy is to believe that warp factor cochranes (units of subspace distortion) can be created on the premise of different annihilation ratios:


     The only time the annihilation ratios (or intecjection ratios) are not constant is usually during low warp or engine startup (in which case you might see 10:1 or even 20:1) The most efficient utilization of the dilithium crystalline lattice is 1:1, however; Thus, the ratio used at high-warp (above warp 8) is 1 proton-neutron (matter nuclei) to every 1 antiproton-antineutron (nuclei). 1/1 1:1 what have you..
     That doesn't necessarily mean, however, that only one matter nuclei and one anti-matter nuclei are annihilated at the same time. Each lattice thread can control the annihilation of a matter and anti-matter nuclei. The matter and anti-matter stream is articulated well enough with the Dilithium crystals to keep the injection ratios as efficiently as possible..
     Since billions of nuclei are annihilated at once, often, you aren't really powering warp drive on one nuclei of anti-matter and one of matter. The formulae usually relate to individual lattice threads.. Different intermix formulae can best determine how much matter and anti-matter go into the drive at one time, but.. Your mileage may very.

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2.2. EPS Taps
EPS Taps are those which divide the energy into 3 usable levels, all crucial to the operation of the ship. Taps for the Electro Plasma System [EPS] are available in three primary types.

     Type 1. A capacity flow for high-energy systems.
                 - Warp Nacelles, Defense systems, Field generators, etc
     Type 2. A capacity flow for experimental devices.
                 - Science, Engineering and Medical labs, Holodecks, etc.
     Type 3. A capacity flow for low-power input applications.
                 - Computer core and all subsystems, lights, PADDs, etc.

     Do your health a favor and keep away from EPS type 1 Tap failures. Just dump the engine core immediately and pray the Warp Coils (shaped like squashed horseshoes, and paired together to form rings to makeup the Nacelles - composed primarily of verterium cortenide) won't overload and explode before it's complete. 
     Having mentioned that, I want to point out that a core shutdown ceases the juice to the EPS taps, yet everything doesn't shut down. Lights, computers and life support, right? That is because Impulse is a separate system, which, like the Dilithium (warp) system, dumps its raw plasma energy into the EPS. Both feed the EPS. 
     Impulse is created through fusion (and the matter supply) which is more stable and keeps the ship running - originally warp drive was fusion based, and gradually it became more common a use for Sublight Impulse. If both Impulse and Warp are down, that's when backup generators need to maintain all ship's power usage. If neither engines are repaired soon, the generators eventually run out of energy and the ship is lost. If repaired, the EPS circle around and promptly re-charge the backup generators. Without repair, escape pods and shuttles would be the only option.

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2.3. Impulse Drive 
Impulse you ask? It explains itself..

Vectored Exhaust Director
|       _________________________  
\ __.--'--,.-' ---------'--'--' /`-.__
|__--(--( |    NX-74205  ==== /-----.`--._    
`---.__\  --========)>     |__|___)_>  `-.  
|    \_________|________/        `----'    
Driver Coil Assembly

Reaction           ___.---' \
Chamber     __.---'  ___.-\- \
\       \ __.---(______\\ \__
.    __.-\__)       ___.---` `-.
\ _|     \ ___.---'        \|| `.     oooo = Emergency Plasma 
.-' |      'oooo,--_.--.    \|`---`.          Vents
,--|EPS|___----'    .' _.._`-.  | \__ _\_
|  |o|_  [[[[| >   / .'__- `. \ |   |/___`--.
---|  |o o|======---- | |(o_)] | | |-->-|___-- |
`   |  |o|___[[[[| >   \ `._ -_.' / |  _|\___.--'
|   `--|EPS|   ----.___ `._ `' _.'  | /    /
|      `-._|      .oooo`-- `--'    /|.---.'
|       /  |__   /_   `---.___     /|| .'      
|      .      `-/__)    ______`---._.-'
|     /        /_  `---(___   // /
|  Impulse       `---.___  `-/- /
|  Reaction              `---._/
|  Chamber
<-Vectored -- Driver -- Accelerator& <-- Impulse -- Impulse-- Impulse
Exhausted   Coil      Generator        Reaction   Reaction  Reaction
Director    Assembly      |            Chamber    Chamber   Chamber
EPS              \          ^        /
power taps          \         |       /
|                 |        |      |
EPS              Deuterium Fuel Supply
                       power distrib         (a.k.a. Matter Supply)

     Now you have to realize that hydrogen, though it's the most abundant thing in the galaxy, is hard to store as a solid. As such, Deuterium is used to counteract this element (If you'll excuse the pun ;-) Deuterium contains highly concentrated amounts of Hydrogen isotopes, and is stored as a cryogenic slosh. As such, it can be used as a type of fuel. Now, after the controlled fusion of hydrogen creates a more denser type of helium, this gas is propelled justly out of the engine, after meeting with the EPS and the vectored exhaust director, to prepell the ship at some STL speed (Its fastest rate varies depending on the vessel or craft, but is normally limited to half light speed due to the time drag it creates)

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If you don't understand the explanation below, don't worry - it isn't crucial to. The better you get in Engineering, the more it will make sense to you. So keep it handy and refer back to it.

-= ((( WARP FIELD ))) =-


ŻŻŻŻŻŻ`.__|_.`ŻŻŻŻŻ\  \
ŻŻŻŻŻŻ\(xxxx|).`ŻŻŻ\ \  \
-----. \\./xxxx\  )  \|
` /ŻŻŻ.(--]]xxxxx)  ) | |
` \___. //`\xxxx/  )  /|
__`___/(xxxx|).___/ /   /
|   `___/   /
______/ \________/

     A powerful, asymmetric subspace field is established around the ship by the warp nacelles. The field is composed of nested layers, each pushing against the one beyond it. This drives the ship forward at a super-luminal velocity.
     A tuned plasma stream from the warp core Matter/Antimatter Reactor (M/AMR) powers the nacelles. Injectors feed the plasma into warp field coil segments at specific times causing pulses to run the length of the nacelle, front to back. This peristaltic flow causes the push of the nested warp fields, and moves the ship forward.
     The warp field wraps around the ship in a two-lobed bubble (Similar to a torus), with the locus at Main Engineering (by design). The shape of the ship determines the efficiency of the field, and this explains why the Enterprise has such a sleek design. The force created by the warp field needed to push the ship at super-luminal velocities can best be represented in dynes (units of force). Most often you'll use the term "Teradyne" to express this.
     Meanwhile, the subspace field reduces the inertial mass of the ship, aiding in maneuvering. In fact, a small subspace field is kept around the ship at Impulse speeds, so the Impulse drives have less mass to push around. However, this is only a side effect and is NOT the mechanism used to allow Faster-Than-Light (FTL) travel. You have to also understand that normal light protons are as light (Again, excuse the pun) as electrons, but contain a bit more mass - yes they have mass. These near mass-less particles are what make light travel possible in the electromagnetic universe. 
     Now, this isn't necessarily true for a starship. Since subspace contains significantly different properties than normal space, in essence, it allows the ship a kick in the boot for accelerations to beyond the speed of light. Something the subspace field does, which I'll talk about in a minute, not only reduces the mass of the ship, but it allows for the spatial drag factor (Created due to the physical nature of objects. In essence, objects that accelerate get "heavier" with speed, also dependent on the interstellar medium)

-= ((( SUBSPACE FIELD ))) =-

    Ships in warp interact with things in normal space, one of the
reasons for the navigational deflector. Things in warp require a subspace field to enter and stay in warp, and it takes an enormous amount of power to generate this. When the subspace field decays, a ship drops out of warp returning to some STL velocity, but not necessarily a dead speed.
     A subspace field does reduce the inertial mass of an object within it, i.e. it appears lighter, but it does not lower the mass to zero, nor on its own would this effect allow FTL travel, as mass-less particles in our universe are still restricted to light speed. It turns out that this effect isn't even considered for warp travel, although it is used for impulse engines - less mass to push around.
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3.1. Time Constant 
Ever look at one of those pretty chronological charts they keep in the command center of UCIP? Pretty nifty, right? Well, do you ever understand it? Of course not! What's to understand other than what's being read to you on your chrono :-/ Stardates are in effect the result of FTL (Faster than light travel) If you ever understand something, understand this: When you're traveling at warp speed, your clock is actually ticking slower than, say, a clock on a relatively stationary starbase. This is due to the time constraints faster than light travel places on our chronos. As such, stardates were designed to adjust for this "time drag." So in all normal general relativity, you could leave from Earth Thursday, return on a Saturday, where on the ship it's actually a Friday ;-)

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3.2. Static Warp Shell 
    In 2367, a phenomenon occurred in which a 3d symmetrical bubble of subspace trapped the starship Enterprise, NCC 1701-D, and encompassed the ship. This subspace phenomenon had an unusual link between consciousness and the physical universe. The field itself was non-propulsive, since warp propulsion requires a peristaltic asymmetric field, but had significantly different properties than that of regular subspace.
     Also aboard that starship, some 4 years later, a Static Warp Shell was created to collapse an anti-time anomaly in the Devron system. This shell acted as an artificial subspace barrier that separated time from anti-time; ultimately, it collapsed the anomaly. This techniqure of encapsulating subspace can also be used for retrieval purposes, similar to that of a transporter.
     Use of this technology is not recommended for commercial use, but holds interesting applications for Starfleet Scientists. :)

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3.3. Warp Field Effect 
  Not so recently, it has been seen that the continued use of FTL travel, particularly that involving Subspace (Warp Drive), causes cumulative damage to the structure of the subspace continuum. As the exposure to warp field energy increases, so does the chance of having a subspace rupture.
     This "warp field effect" becomes particularly severe when Warp 5 is exceeded. A noted scientist named Dr. Serova proved this effect to be true when, in 2370, Dr's Serova and Rabal littered an unstable subspace region, known as the Hekaras corridor, with Veteron mines. 
    Concentrations of veterons interact with warp coils in prevention of warp drive - thus knocking out the warp drives of passing Federation starships and gaining attention. When the Dr. purposely causes a warp core breach in the area, a subspace rupture was inevitably formed, proving her theory to be sound. For several years after that, Federation starships were limited in speed to warp 4.7 to prevent further irreparable damage to the Subspace continuum.
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3.4. Variable Geometry Warp Nacelles 
   When Starfleet Scientists realized the need for a solution to "Warp Pollution", they began extensive research on Warp Field Geometries and subspace field mechanics. Some years after the incident at Hekaras II, Starfleet finally found a solution to its problems:
     Warp fields created by variable geometry warp nacelles.
     Variable geometry warp drive involves a folding wind-and-nacelle configuration that no longer has a negative impact on subspace. The first such starship to imploy this type of technology was the USS Intrepid. The Intrepid class starship solves this problem through the use of inclined nacelles - nacelles that incline themselves upward during warp travel - and the use of the elliptical forward frame of the warp field:

         .-folded nacelle in inclined flight                         
/                                ________
/                          __.------'--------`---.___
.-,-----------..        _.--'  _.-' /==================`--.___ 
| ===========<=|| [`__.-'     .'    /                          `--._
`\ .--------------' --------'========================================
___.-'-----------..__                 .'`-._________.---------'
'--|  ==========<=|| [`.______________/      

\      `._____              /
\            `------------'
.-- folding, inclined nacelle

   .-------------..--.                   _.--------.___       \
|  ==========> ||   )             _.--'              `--._    \
`-------------'`--'           .-'   \                    `-._  \
/--.     /               .'       \.--------.__           `.  \
/---'    |      _____.--.'`-.__     \  ___      `-._         `.
.-'   ____.-------'      .'     __`-._.--'__ `-.       `.         \ \
.'  |.-'    ___________.--'------'  _ |  .-/[_],  `.   |   `.        \ 
|---' | .--'  _____________[|___   | || |]]]/ \|   |   | .-----.  .--.|
|---. | `--.___________    [|      |_|| |]]]\_/|   |   | `-----'  `--'|
`.  |`-.____           `--.------.__  |_ `-\[_]`  .'   |   .'        /
`-.       `-------._____ `.     __.-' `--.___.-'      _.'         / /
\---.    |           `--`..-'       /         __.-'          .' /
\--'     \               `.       /`--------'            _.'  /
.-------------..--.           `-._  /                   _.-'   /
|  ==========> ||   )              `--._          ___.--'    /
`-------------'`--'                    `--------'      .--/
Eliptical Hull

     This type of technology is now more commonly employed in most modern-day confederation starships (as we see with the forward hull ellipse). Most non-variable geometrical starship designs now employ one or two types of variable geometry technology to ellipse their warp fields enough not to cause this type of irreparable damage to the Subspace continuum.

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4. Warp Factors
An easy concept to grasp should be compound inflation, right? If you put a dime into your bank account, it'll double, then triple, etc. You'll be a millionaire before you die. All from a dollar? Yes. Granted the interest would have to be fair, 6-9%. And you have to let it compound, no withdrawals. Its how the rich get richer. And that's one way I look at it for our subject, another way is to think about time. Imagine warp 1 being seconds, warp 2 being minutes, warp 3 being hours, warp 4 being days. Now, see the difference between warp 1 and 4? That is how the warp factors work. They are each compounded considerably.
     Warp 1 is lightspeed, but Warp 2 isn't lightspeed x2. It is lightspeed x10 [approximately]. As demonstrated in this graph. The left side is lightspeed velocity, which we're interested in:

      |                                                            :| :-10^10
|                                                           : | :=
|      [Warp speed/power Graph]                         +  :  | :-
|                                                       :::  '  :- 10^9
10^4 -|                                               +    :     |  :=
=|                                     +     :    :::::     ,/   :- 10^8
-|                               +     :     :  :: |   __*-'     :=
1000 -|                               :     :    :::: __*--'  |       :-
=|                         +     :    ::   __*--'  |     |       :- 10^7
-|                   +     :   __*--': |:::  |     |     |       :-
100 -|                   :    _*--': |::   |     |     |     |       :- 10^6
=|                   : _-':|  :  |     |     |     |     |       :=
=|             +    _*'  : |::   |     |     |     |     |       :-
-|             : _-':|   : |     |     |     |     |     |       :- 10^5
10 -|             *'   :|  :  |     |     |     |     |     |       :=
=|       +   ,'|   : |::   |     |     |     |     |     |       :-
=|       : ,' :|   : |     |     |     |     |     |     |       :- 10^4
-|       :/   :|  :  |     |     |     |     |     |     |       :=
1 -|      :*   : |::   |     |     |     |     |     |     |       :-
=|     :/|   : |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |       :- 10^3
=|   ::/ |  :  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |       :=
-|:_:-'  |::   |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |       :-
-| ,-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----|-----. :- 10^2
------' |    1|    2|    3|    4|    5|    6|    7|    8|    9|     |

`::::::::                     Warp Factor
`--- Velocity in                                          Power usage in          multiples of c                                     Megajoules/cochrane

                 __.---'  Velocity      * Integral Warp Values

                 :::::::  Power         + Power Thresholds

     This information is as important to the Navigation's officer as the Engineers. Which is why the Helm represents Engineering in some matters. If the chart confuses you, try this:

Warp Factor 1 = 1 cochrane (light speed)
Warp Factor 2 = 10 cochranes (light speed x 10)
Warp Factor 3 = 39 cochranes (light speed x 39)
Warp Factor 4 = 102 cochranes (light speed x 102)
Warp Factor 5 = 214 cochranes (light speed x 214)
Warp Factor 6 = 392 cochranes (light speed x 392)
Warp Factor 7 = 656 cochranes (light speed x 656)
Warp Factor 8 = 1024 cochranes (light speed x 1,024)
Warp Factor 9 = 1516 cochranes (light speed x 1,516)

Now something to put things in more perspective, less theory.

SPEED | Km's per | Earth to Moon | Across Solar | To nearby  | Across sector

hour                        System        Star

[400,000 km]  [12 million km]  [5 light-Y]  [20 Light-Y]

Stand.    9600         42              142          558,335       2 million
Orbit                  hours           years        years         years

Full     270           5.38            44           20            80
Impulse  million       seconds         hours        years         years

Warp 1   1078          1.34            11           5             20
million       seconds         hours        years         years

Warp 5   230           0.0062          3            9             1
billion       seconds         minutes      days          month

Warp 9   1.63          0.000886        26           1             5
trillion      seconds         seconds      day           days 

Warp 9.6 2.06          0.000704        21           23            4
trillion      seconds         seconds      hours         days
                [Full Chart in the Navigations Officer's Guide]

     The actual values are dependant upon interstellar conditions. (e.g. gas density, electric and magnetic fields within different regions of the Milky Way galaxy, and fluctuations in the subspace domain.)
     How this information is relevant to you is to understand the power drain. You cannot give your Tactical officer full shield and weaponry strength when you're in warp factor 9, look at the power drain. The warp coils have to be sustained with the massive amount of plasma, otherwise the field is lost and the
ship drifts off course.
     Notice the power usage while traveling above warp factor 9. Warp 9.9 requires a lot of energy to sustain a stable warp field. Because of this, some starships have an automatic engine shutdown after ten minutes of travel at Warp 9.9. Any more than that would damage the ship and also use so much power that the ship would lose all life support and other systems:

Power required for a Galaxy Class starship to curise at given velocity
|[  Warp Speed] [Cochrane Value   [Power use per  [Total Power Used]|
|                (speed in xc)]      Cochrane]         (Watts)      |
|                                    (Watts)                        |
|       1              1            2.00 x 108          2.00 x 108  |
|       2              10           3.00 x 109          3.00 x 1010 |
|       3              39           2.00 x 1010         7.80 x 1011 |
|       4              102          2.00 x 1011         2.04 x 1013 |
|       5              214          8.00 x 1011         1.71 x 1014 |
       6              392          4.00 x 1012         1.56 x 1015 |
|       7              656          2.00 x 1013         1.41 x 1016 |
|       8              1,024        1.00 x 1014         1.02 x 1017 |
|       9              1,516        8.00 x 1014         1.21 x 1018 |
|       9.2            1,649        1.00 x 1015         1.65 x 1018 |
|       9.6            1,909        2.50 x 1015         4.77 x 1018 |
|       9.9            3,053        2.00 x 1017         6.00 x 1020 |


In Physics we learn that static energy is larger then kinetic. This was taught *long ago* by our friend Newton. It does take more energy to move an object, then to keep it in motion. The Warp speed/power graph shows this, with the + signs. View that graph again. After the burst of energy, there is a decrease in energy. So you'll understand, there is energy for other systems - just not 100%. The taps have to give almost all custody rights to the Warp engines, visitation privileges can be arranged though. :) You're the Engineer, they are your engines and they obey you. Quickly can they get in front of you though, so keep a step ahead. When you do something, you should already know the outcome and confirm it. Such as power levels per warp jump, magnetic field containment readings, fusion coils, etc. Monitor-monitor-monitor!

Very important to remember though, is that Warp travel is non-Newtonian. Without a constant influx of energy, the subspace field will decay, and the ship will drop out of warp. In other words, you *must* continue to provide energy to maintain your warp velocity. Impulse Power, however, is normal Action/Reaction based and is Newtonian.

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4.1. Subspace Density and Gravitational Constant

     Warp Travel and Warp Speeds differentiate depending upon where you are in the universe. Some vessels may travel faster at lower warp factors than others, and some vessels may travel slower at lower warp factors than others - and some might not be able to goto warp at all. This is all dependent upon the subspace field density and electromagnetic flux of an area. Within Solar Systems, or within gravity wells, warp may be significantly slower than in other areas.

On a good day, in a good area, one might expect the subspace field density to be around .03684678 and the electromagnetic flux to be in the vicinity of 1.79130171. These are all average values under ideal conditions - again, your mileage may very. There have been regions of space where warp travel can be significantly faster than other areas; these areas are known more commonly as "warp highways". Depending upon the Cochrane Values of an area, you could theoretically reach the edge of the galaxy where areas are rather intense.

A very significant warp highway was the one that existed between Nimbus III and the galactic bulge (core). In 2287 the Enterprise-A traveled this highway at Warp 7, covering the 22,000 light year distance to the core in just under 6.8 hours - an average speed of 3,235 light years per hour. This particular "warp highway" no longer exists, and most only do so for a finite amount of time.

More common to the universe is "Warp Shallows". Warp shallows are regions of space, usually covering large distances, where the Cochrane Value is significantly lower (sometimes even by half, a value of .55). Warp travel in these areas is significantly slower even at higher speeds. Known Warp shallows include the Hekaras corridor and the Briar Patch.

Even stranger phenomena are "Subspace Sandbars". These sandbars are a region of space in which the Cochrane Value is 0, thus rendering warp drive impossible. Fortunate for the Confederation, these areas are very rare.

The gravitational constant is a mathematical expression that describes the amount of gravitational attraction generated by a given amount of matter. Lowering the gravitational constant of the universe would inevitably lower the mass of objects existing in the universe. Standard hyperlight drives, such as Warp Drive, utilize Warp Fields to lower their gravitational constants of the space within the field itself, thus lowering the ship's mass to almost zero.

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4.2. Warp Factor Formulae
     As a Starfleet Engineer or Navigation's Officer, there may often be times in which you will need to know how fast your ship is going and how long it will take to get to a said destination. Warp Scales have progressed much since the first warp drive was created on the Phoenix, and the first uses of Warp travel was seen by Terrans.
     An original, simplistic formula for calculating velocity by cochranes (units of subspace distortion, best described as the # of times the speed of light) was V/c=WF^3 - where V is velocity, c is the speed of light, and WF is the Warp factor. This equation was simply the warp factor cubed. This formula, however, was very inaccurately poised to describing the subspace density and em flux of an area (as mentioned above).
     As such, the scale was modified:

V/c= WF^(10/3) + (10-WF)^(-11/3) for Warp factors to and at Warp 9.

V/c=WF^((((-LN((10-WF)))^1.791275)*0.03684678))+(10/3)) for factors above warp 9 ( in essence).

     Of course, not everyone is a Math Major. You probably won't be expected to quote these formulae in your sleep, but it's a good idea to understand the logistics behind them.

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Engineers should know how Transporters, Replicators Holodeck and
Computers work to repair them. Though we won't get into a lot of advanced topics, this information should help you to be a better Engineer in a SIM; it allows you to add detail to your actions and keep you interested.

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5.1. Transporters
     The inner workings of transporters are a maze and mess of complexity. They employ Heisenberg compensators, Doppler compensators, pattern buffers, phase transition coils, Biofilters, matter streams, annular confinement beams, matter-energy converters, phased matter, auto-sequencers, ionizers, pattern buffers, enhancers, pattern locks, rematerialization subroutines, transporter carrier waves, imaging scanners, and energizing coils (::catches his breathe::) As for what they do, we know that you are conscious during transport, but can also be held in stasis. Further, while in transport, you appear whole to yourself.
     I hypothesize that the auto-seqeuncers instruct the Annular Confinement Beam to lock onto, then disassemble the subject into phased matter, via the phase transition coils causing it to take on a very energy-like state somewhat akin to plasma, called phased matter. During this process, the Heisenberg compensators and the imaging scanners scope out the constantly moving Quantum state of the matter and then is piped into the energizing coils. Here, it goes into the pattern buffer where a myriad of things happens, and eventually is run through the biofilters. The matter stream is then piped through waveguide conduits to one of the beam emitters on the hull of the starship.
     From there on, the rematerialization subroutines kick in, and a transporter carrier wave (ACB) is relayed to a point on the ground where the ACB reconstructs the subject. Now, an important note: the Doppler Compensators selectively control the beaming of a person to and from a starship while it's moving away from the target, or the target is moving away from it (Thus the use of Doppler). Basically, it controls how much power goes in and out of the ACB to the phase transition coils.
     Now then, you may be wondering, "How the bloody phase inducers do ya scope out the atoms of the subject you wish to dis/reassemble. You'd need a telescope a million miles wide for that!" Well, you're right in some aspects, but wrong in another. Current Confederation starships use something called "Heisenberg Compensators" (as mentioned previously) to scope out the constantly vibrating place of each atom in an object/body. This is done via particle means. Right now you have about 50 million neutrinos surging around the room. Heck, one could pass through you right now, and you wouldn't even know it. This is because normal forces that bind quarks, and hold the nuclei together aren't strong enough to react with neutrinos. They are the result of nuclear fusion, thus means they are around everywhere, including the sun ;-) Now, even though you would need a telescope with a lens 50,000 km wide, we get past that with these tiny particles called neutrinos (Or, "Little neutral ones")
     Since Neutrinos do not react with normal matter, they can easily pass through the atmospheres of planets where other particles would be easily filtered out. Working hand in hand with the neutrinos, gravitons also work to scope out the atom, and thus these little guys together make the transporter feasible, down to the tiniest quanta.

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5.2. Replicator

     Replicators are based on transporter technology. A sample object is first "scanned" into the memory of a computer. Because even a simple object takes up an enormous amount of memory, the object is only resolved at a molecular level, not a quantum level - most objects don't require the precise reconstruction that quantum states would provide. Further, the data must be compressed using a lossy algorithm, meaning that small, undetectable approximations are made to the data. This gives the computer a pattern to create a duplicate of the original.
     Starships have a small supply of bulk material that is constantly being recycled into needed materials and items. When a request is made at a replicator terminal, the waveguide conduit system on the ship relays a small amount of bulk material to the replicator, which is piped through the matter-input conditions, molecular matrix algorithm procesors, through to the matter-assembly field manipulators, and the matrix-beam emitters - which construct the object and beam it to the terminal.
    When a CEO says "30 minutes at least, Captain", they might be replicating various components and using a transporter-effected swap-out. Recall, however, that the transporters and replicators use a lot of power. The replicators go offline in Alert situations, for example. It would be foolish to rely on such a system to repair the ship in emergencies, but it is doubtless used at other time. 

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5.3. HoloDeck

     A Holodeck can create simulations in the following ways:
    * The walls can generate holographic images, which appear to extend  for an unlimited  distance.

    * Holograms can be projected into space. For example, when Picard went horseback riding, most of the trees were probably intangible projections since he wasn't going to run into them.

     * Holograms can be augmented with force beams to simulate solid, tangible objects, generated by numerous hologenerators and imaging processors. 

     * Holograms and force beams can be augmented with replicator technology to provide actual substance. Food on the holodeck would be of this nature. Most inanimate objects which are likely to be eaten or have properties difficult to simulate (e.g. water) would be simulated in this way.

     * An animate object is comprised of a partially stable form of matter created by the Holodeck replicators for use in the Holodeck only. This material is stable only within a Holodeck or holosuite, and degrades into energy if removed. (Encyclopedia).

    This is matter held in place by force beams operating at a molecular level, as opposed to actually replicating the object down to the molecular bonds.

     Note that the wall/hologram/force beam simulations are easy for the holodeck to carry out, and that the hologram/force beam/replicator simulations were possible during "Encounter at Farpoint" (when Wesley got soaked). Also note that "Omicrons" are special types of Photons plausibly used for the force beam projections - in some hologenerators they help give substance to the holograms. 

     Also, if an object's status changes, the simulation type will change seamlessly as well. For example, someone sees a distant tree (walls), approaches it (hologram), leans on it (force beams), breaks off a branch (Holodeck-matter), then picks and eats an apple (replicated).

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5.4. Computers

     Standard Starfleet computer cores incorporate Computer Cores, mini-computer cores (as we've seen with LCARS-II), LCARS, the ODN, subprocessors, distribution nodes, isolinear optical chips, bio-neural gel packs, data cubes, nano-processors, and transator clusters. Generally, most Confederation starships have 2 or even 3 computer cores.

     Whether you're using a terminal linked directly to the ODN, or accessing a padd from your quarters, there's an interesting maze of parts and complexities behnd Starfleet computers. In the Data core itself, nanaprocessors are arranged in parallel packs of transtator clusters, which have a low-level non-propulsive warp field around their processors that allows faster than light computation, data retrieval, and tasking abilities. Data storage is achieved via isolinear, bio-neural, and data cube means.

     The computers are networked with each other, and with the rest of the ship via the ODN - the Optical Data Network. The ODN has enough processing power on its own to take over limited control of the ship in case of a complete computer failure. Hence the backup generator discussed before. The LCARS (Library Computer and Retrieval System) acts as a software platform and operating system for the computers, making it possible to do very repetitive and non-user friendly tasks relatively quickly.

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5.4.1. Bio-Neural Gel Packs

     The bio-neural gel packs consist of a gel that contains bio-neural cells. They are a replacement for the isolinear circuitry formerly used on Starfleet vessels. Their main benefit is efficiency; there is better organization of information and quicker response time. Not all the circuitry has been replaced by the gel packs. Because the gel packs are biological in nature, there is the possibility of a virus infiltrating the gel packs and giving a vessel "the flu". 

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     According to the Star Fleet Chronology, the Excelsior was commissioned as NX-2000 in 2284 as a test bed for the new TransWarp technology. By 2287, the TransWarp Development Project was deemed unsuccessful by Star Fleet Command, and experiments were halted.

     It seems as though the designers were trying to get around the energy limits traditional warp entailed, after passing Warp 9.

     It *may* be that a TransWarp drive attempts to tunnel through subspace, bypassing the limitations of warp entirely. If this is the case, then it is no wonder Starfleet was forced to give up - the energy requirements are beyond what the Borg have. Instead, they use semi-stable conduits, accessed via a tachyon interaction with a subspace distortion.

     The design of the original Excelsior class prototype may have been aimed towards the creation a more dynamic, elliptical, and sleek warp field to tunnel through subspace, trying to utilize perpetual motion to build up enough momentum to push the ship into the next warp domain and bypass the energy spike as 10 approached. The technology possessed at the time of the Excelsior-class, however, was insufficient in allowing the Excelsior to accelerate to Transwarp.

     If the drive was activated, the nested layers of the warp field would have eventually tore the ship apart as structural integrity was lost with the gaining momentum. Eventually the nacelles would have imploded under their own force, and the ship would have been lost.

(For more information regarding Transwarp and its successful technologies, please consult the Transwarp guide).

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6.1. Quantum Slipstream

Variable geometry nacelle struts
`   ____                
/__ /
       USS Coronado (Katana Class)         
________//_//____   _         
/ .(|||||||||||)  ||| \         __.-----.__

\_________________|||_/     _.-'__--.|.--__`-._
//_//               .'./\\\___|||___///\.`.
//_//               / /  / \    |    / \  \ \
//_//             __/_'-/'   \   |   /   `\-`_\
/    `-.----------' |. `-._    \  |  /    _.-'_ |
/       __.`-'___,// ____   `-._ .---. _.-'   | ||
|  ,---'  __________/    `---._ / /~\.\       |_||
| (  (| |>__________|======== _ | |O|.|----------|
|  `---.__    _____ \____.---' _\ \_/ /_      |~||
\        _`--.__ `\\ ,.    _.-'  `---'  `-._  |_||
\ __ ,-'----------._|__.-'     /  |  \     `-._ |
\\_\\               \ .-\    /   |   \    /-. /
\\_\\               \ \.`\ /___ | ___\ /'./ /
_____\\_\\______   _     `._\///_  |||  _\\\/_.'
/ .(||||||||||)  ||| \       `-.__`-'|`-'__.-'
\________________|||_/            `-----'
----- Energy Neutral Nacelles
                        (During Quantum Transit)

     Quantum phase inversion propulsion -- the so-called "slipstream drive" -- is a technology that has come a long way in the last eight years. The technology was originally discovered by U.S.S. Voyager, NCC-74656 during her passage through Delta quadrant, and was actually successfully used by that vessel twice, in 2375 (for approximately 47
seconds) and in 2377 (for several hours). It was the excitement of Voyager's use of slipstream in her journey home that prompted experiments into the technology.

     Unfortunately, that excitement was short-lived: it was discovered that Voyager's successful use of slipstream was a fluke, and the ship could have been destroyed or severely damaged by her use of it. In theory, quantum phase inversion involves creating a bubble of quantum subspace, into which the starship is inserted. That bubble is then linked through a conduit to a distant point in space. The bubble transits through the conduit very quickly, appearing to cross enormous distances in very little time. Once the destination is reached, the bubble is collapsed and the starship emerges into real space at her destination.

     In practice, the use of slipstream technology was problematic at best. Although short-lived conduits could be generated relatively easily, a major problem plagued the project: quantum phase variances. During the transit, these variances had a tendency to disrupt the conduit, overloading the quantum bubble and prematurely dropping the starship
out of slipstream, with disastrous results. Several successful tests were conducted in 2386, but they were done with vessel sizes no greater than about 16 meters long.

     After years of frustrating research, a rather embarrassing breakthrough was made in 2391 when it was discovered that the testing methodology itself was flawed: all of the ships used in prior experiments included warp nacelles, included as part of the matter/antimatter power system as a matter of course. When this seemingly obvious oversight was remedied, several possible theoretical models for successful transit through a slipstream conduit emerged. Soon after, it was realized that a slipstream-capable ship could incorporate warp nacelles if a method to render them energy-neutral was included also, and their z-axis compression was within a very thin tolerance. The race to build a
slipstream-capable starship was on.

     The Katana class starship is the first Starfleet design specifically built around the quantum phase inversion propulsion technology. Though a relatively small ship, the Katana class frigates should provide a suitable testbed on which to refine slipstream further. Already, though, several drawbacks to this propulsion technology have been identified. First, as stated above, the phase variances of the matrix need to be carefully monitored at all times. Failure to do so could result in the matrix overloading and the vessel dropping out of the conduit unexpectedly. Second, only low energy deflectors may be used during transit: high energy deflectors will disrupt the matrix or prevent its formation entirely.

     From an external perspective, slipstream conduits are extremely easy to track, and are quite obvious to even relatively primitive sensors. Therefore, they should not be used near planets settled by low technology civilizations protected by the Prime Directive. Further, the obvious nature of the conduit's formation effectively announces the arrival of a slipstream-capable starship as much as 20 seconds before the starship can exit the conduit. This is a significant tactical disadvantage. Much like transwarp conduits, slipstream conduits can also be disrupted by high-energy explosions across their subspace
threshhold or transition path. A ship outside the conduit but in the path of it can therefore bring the slipstream-capable vessel out of the slipstream with a well-placed torpedo blast or use of similar weaponry. If the helm officer's reflexes are not sufficient to the task, a
starship caught in such a disruption will certainly be destroyed.

     Finally, slipstream is a singularly inexact science at present. Local electromagnetic field flux values and local subspace field densities can greatly influence the speed at which a starship passes through the conduit. In areas of high electromagnetic field flux or low subspace field densities (such as the vicinity of planetary systems), the transit speed decreases dramatically. In comparitively more empty interstellar space, the transit speed can become dangerously high.

     These drawbacks, while significant, have not delayed the promise of the quantum phase inversion propulsion system. There is one simple reason:  slipstream is fast. A vessel passing through such a conduit can reach average speeds the equivalent of warp 9.9998, or approximately 140,000 times the speed of light. Slipstream holds the promise of forever
changing Starfleet's reach in the cosmos; therefore, the experiments will likely continue well into the future. A new age could very well be dawning!

USS Coronado (Katana Class)
_____                       Ż|

_______...---'--.--`---..._______          |           

(===|===|===|=====|=====|===|===|===)        |    Z-Axis
___  `---`-..__|__..-'---'  ___           |- Less than 70m
(___)--.ŻŻ.-'_.---._`-.ŻŻ.--(___)          |
`~~`.__`---'__.'~~'                 |
\  ~~~~~                       _|
ŻŻ   Low-Energy Deflector

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6.2. Keltrinium

     Recently a new material - a new type of dilithium substitute - was discovered in the Gamma quadrent. When asking the Science Council and its discoverer the origins and fundamentals of the material, they released a statement..

     "Keltrinium is a mineral that does the same thing as dilithium, only better. It is a porous mineral, the channels being precise electron guidepaths for the antiprotons and protons. This eliminates fuel waste and such. The end result is that you can get away with using a smaller core, and less fuel, for a given amount of power.

     This mineral is only found in the Gamma quadrant, in former Dominion territories. It is experimental right now, and has one drawback. It is a bit brittle, and a special frame must be constructed to cushion it

     Practical applications- Basically you either have smaller warp cores on starships that produce the same power as before, or same sized cores with more power. Also, fuel is conserved. These crystals are compatible with all known cores- standard, cryogenic, multiple matter stream."

     In a not so distant future, the entire Starfleet could be using this material.

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Operating Modes and you!

     -> Cruise Mode: This refers to the normal operating condition of the spacecraft. Also known as Green alert. You have a minimum amount of generators running, diagnostic mainly when problems arise.

     -> Yellow Alert Mode: This condition is increased readiness in which key systems are brought to greater operating capacity in anticipation of potential crises. You activate some more field generators, and a few on standby.

     -> Red Alert Mode: This condition is invoked during actual or immediately imminent emergency conditions, and invoked during battle situations. Activate all generators and systems. Run diagnostic's more frequently, and keep channeling power to the defence systems. The Auxillary systems are lovely for redirecting from!

     -> Reduced Power Mode: These protocols may be activated when power availability or power usage is reduced to less than 26% or of normal Cruise Mode load. With the Ops and Captain's approval, deactivate subsystems and field generators until only life support, Gravity plates, one computer core and Inertial Dampening Systems (IDS) are online. Then pick up the systems that Ops says they need while confirming all backup generators are recharged.

     -> Blue Alert Mode: Activated when the ship has to make a planetary landing although it was once used for deck evacuations too. Don't ask! Just increase power to the IDS systems and hit the deck.

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Separation in Duty's between Assistant and Chief.

     CEOs - Talk to the Bridge, advise and suggest actions that are best fit for the ship's power supply. Decides to evacuate Eng, shut down core, dump anti-matter, which diagnostic's, and what to fix.
      AEOs - Monitors read outs, reports all status to CEO, makes out repairs on subsystems unless otherwise requested by the CEO. In CEO's absence, assumes Acting Chief.

**Miscellaneous Information**

This section contains other knowledge that will help you become a better engineer (and make you look good too).

There are normally 5 levels of diagnostics. Level 1 being the highest and 5 the lowest. A Level 1 diagnostic is the most detailed diagnostic that is used to figure out what a problem is. A Level 5 diagnostic is a basic diagnostic used to make sure the system being tested will work.

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At best, the common engineer is provided with a variety of tools. As of current, here a few useful ones that you might find scrimmaging around in my tool case ;-)

Isolinear Phase Inverter -
This tool is used to probe Isolinear circuits for common problems. At current, it can be used as a diagnostic tool, or just something to pry the lid off a can of peanuts. The tool has a rather large, white light emitting diode at the tip of it. It's about 48 cm long, and very thick.

Quantum regulator -
This tool is used to jupiter quantum fluctuations, quantum regularities, and a useful tool in field mechanics. This tool is rather small, and hand held. 23cm long with a thin, rod shaped, rounded tip.

Isolinear Inducer -
This tool is used in a variety of tasks from replacing a damaged circuit to diagnosing anomalies in a bio-gel pack. It's shaped like a very crude looking broom handle, with a nice comfy easy grip ;-) It's about 25 cm long

Isolinear Enhancer -
Similar purpose to the Inducer, except it offers a phase regulator for those pesky ODN problems, requiring isolinear i-node probing. 25 cm long.

Electro-Plasma Regulator -
This is used for the handling of EPS power relays, and the maintenance of the power conduits. Its dimensions are 5x36cm

Microdine Enhancer -
Used specifically for subspace equipment. It has a variety of functions, and is easily callibrated. Keep away from flame. 3x19cm 

Warp Core matrix flux capacitor -
Used for power distribution of the EPS. Can be easily callibrated to adjust any warp core. Dimensions are roughly the same as a Microdine Enhancer.

Flow Distributor -
Used to redirect the power flow out of a relay from a damaged conduit/peripheral equipment (Replicators, etc). It can be used to adjust for the flow ratio of a power conduit/EPS flow regulator, or to realign the induction coils.

Isochronious Asymmetric Compensator -
Used for transporters. Has a variety of uses from realigning the phase transition coils, to adjusting the flow feed of the Doppler compensators.

Dynamic mode stabilizer -
A tool used to analize computer systems, and scan for anomalies. Most useful on isolinear, and bio-neural gel pack circuits. 3x19 cm

Hyper Spanner - A tool used in the calibration of plasma injectors.

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     Encourage your crew to keep you busy down in Engineering. If you have nothing to do, make something up. Whenever you come up with a problem, be sure to clear it with the CO. If there is a major problem occurring, don't clear it up right away. Work with it and make it more interesting, solve it when it's appropriate. As always, follow the rules in the SIMguide, make sure that you are being a good SIMmer as well as a good Engineer. Keep yourself involved in the plots. Let them know you are there down in Engineering. Logical as pi. So we won't waste further time with it. From the people at the Engineering Facility, we hope we've prepared you well enough to pass the test and be a proud, important member aboard SF ships. G'luck!

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